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The core of the DEEP approch is the so called Cluster-Booster architecture: With this approach DEEP took the concept of compute acceleration to a new level: it combined a standard Cluster using Intel® Xeon® nodes (Cluster Nodes) with an innovative, highly scalable Booster constructed of Intel® Xeon Phi™ co-processors (Booster Nodes). This combination provided maximum throughput and scalability on the Booster side, matching the requirements of highly scalable code parts, and supported proven HPC programming models like MPI and OmpSs. Code parts with limited scalability (e.g. because of complex control flow or data dependencies) run with high efficiency on the Cluster side, and the transparent bridging of both interconnects facilitates high-speed data transfer between the two sides.


The DEEP-ER architecture took the Cluster-Booster concept of DEEP to the next level. An innovative two-level approach gave DEEP-ER significantly more flexibility than what could possibly be achieved in DEEP: With the DEEP-ER prototype the system components can be upgraded with better implementations or even newer technology.


In order to achieve this, DEEP-ER uses second- generation Intel® Xeon Phi™ manycore CPUs that boot without the help of an attached Intel® Xeon® processor for the Booster part.Additionally, to support highly efficient I/O and fast checkpoint/restart systems, DEEP-ER evaluated novel memory technologies: non-volatile memory within the Booster nodes, and Network Attached Memory (NAM) as a shared, persistent memory resource.


In the third phase of the project, DEEP-EST, the Cluster-Booster architecture shall be extended to a Modular SupercoModular Supercomputing Architecture Schememputing Architecture (MSA). In the spirit of the DEEP and DEEP‑ER projects, the MSA integrates compute modules with different performance characteristics into a single heterogeneous system. Each module is a parallel, clustered system of potentially large size. A federated network connects the module-specific interconnects. MSA brings substantial benefits for heterogeneous applications/workflows: each part can be run on an exactly matching system, improving time to solution and energy use. This is ideal for supercomputer centres running heterogeneous application mixes (higher throughput and energy efficiency). It also offers valuable flexibility to the compute providers, allowing the set of modules and their respective size to be tailored to actual usage.

The DEEP‑EST prototype will include three modules: general purpose Cluster Module and Extreme Scale Booster supporting the full range of HPC applications, and Data Analytics Module specifically designed for high-performance data analytics (HPDA) workloads. Proven programming models and APIs from HPC (combining MPI and OmpSs) and HPDA will be extended and combined with a significantly enhanced resource management and scheduling system to enable straightforward use of the new architecture and achieve highest system utilisation and performance. Scalability projections will be given up to the Exascale performance class. The DEEP‑EST prototype will be defined in close co-design between applications, system software and system component architects. Its implementation will employ European integration, network and software technologies. Six ambitious and highly relevant European applications from HPC and HPDA domains will drive the co-design, serving to evaluate the DEEP‑EST prototype and demonstrate the benefits of its innovative Modular Supercomputer Architecture.